What’s new in aiohttp 1.1

YARL and URL encoding

Since aiohttp 1.1 the library uses yarl for URL processing.

New API

yarl.URL gives handy methods for URL operations etc.

Client API still accepts str everywhere url is used, e.g. session.get('http://example.com') works as well as session.get(yarl.URL('http://example.com')).

Internal API has been switched to yarl.URL. aiohttp.CookieJar accepts URL instances only.

On server side has added web.Request.url and web.Request.rel_url properties for representing relative and absolute request’s URL.

URL using is the recommended way, already existed properties for retrieving URL parts are deprecated and will be eventually removed.

Redirection web exceptions accepts yarl.URL as location parameter. str is still supported and will be supported forever.

Reverse URL processing for router has been changed.

The main API is aiohttp.web.Request.url_for(name, **kwargs) which returns a yarl.URL instance for named resource. It doesn’t support query args but adding args is trivial: request.url_for('named_resource', param='a').with_query(arg='val').

The method returns a relative URL, absolute URL may be constructed by request.url.join(request.url_for(...) call.

URL encoding

YARL encodes all non-ASCII symbols on yarl.URL creation.

Thus URL('https://www.python.org/путь') becomes 'https://www.python.org/%D0%BF%D1%83%D1%82%D1%8C'.

On filling route table it’s possible to use both non-ASCII and percent encoded paths:

app.router.add_get('/путь', handler)

and:

app.router.add_get('/%D0%BF%D1%83%D1%82%D1%8C', handler)

are the same. Internally '/путь' is converted into percent-encoding representation.

Route matching also accepts both URL forms: raw and encoded by converting the route pattern to canonical (encoded) form on route registration.

Sub-Applications

Sub applications are designed for solving the problem of the big monolithic code base. Let’s assume we have a project with own business logic and tools like administration panel and debug toolbar.

Administration panel is a separate application by its own nature but all toolbar URLs are served by prefix like /admin.

Thus we’ll create a totally separate application named admin and connect it to main app with prefix:

admin = web.Application()
# setup admin routes, signals and middlewares

app.add_subapp('/admin/', admin)

Middlewares and signals from app and admin are chained.

It means that if URL is '/admin/something' middlewares from app are applied first and admin.middlewares are the next in the call chain.

The same is going for on_response_prepare signal – the signal is delivered to both top level app and admin if processing URL is routed to admin sub-application.

Common signals like on_startup, on_shutdown and on_cleanup are delivered to all registered sub-applications. The passed parameter is sub-application instance, not top-level application.

Third level sub-applications can be nested into second level ones – there are no limitation for nesting level.

Url reversing

Url reversing for sub-applications should generate urls with proper prefix.

But for getting URL sub-application’s router should be used:

admin = web.Application()
admin.add_get('/resource', handler, name='name')

app.add_subapp('/admin/', admin)

url = admin.router['name'].url_for()

The generated url from example will have a value URL('/admin/resource').

Application freezing

Application can be used either as main app (app.make_handler()) or as sub-application – not both cases at the same time.

After connecting application by .add_subapp() call or starting serving web-server as toplevel application the application is frozen.

It means that registering new routes, signals and middlewares is forbidden. Changing state (app['name'] = 'value') of frozen application is deprecated and will be eventually removed.